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Vol 1 Issue 9

Volume  1  Issue  9

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 Sabbour Magda, Singer Said

Efficacy of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi against Corn Pests Under Laboratory and Field Conditions in Egypt

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Abstract: The effect of the twoentomopathogenic fungi Paecilomyces carneus and Paecilomyces farinosuss tested under laboratory green house and field conditions. The results showed that, the LC50 of the entomopathogenic fungi P. carneus ,149X104, 166X104 and 176X104 spores/ ml for Ostrinia nubilalis, Sesamia cretica and Chilo agamemnon., respectively. under green houseconditions, the corresponding LC50, 156 X104 , 189 X104 and 195 X104 spores/ml. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungi under corn field conditions , detected that during season 2013 the means number of infestation with O. nubilalis significantly decreased to 15±3.1, 20±2.2 and 23±3.2 individuals after 20, 50 and 90 days of post applications as compared to 42 ±5.2, 69±4.3 and 88±2.3 individuals in the control. In all treatments the infestations significantly decreased after the fungi applications (Table 3). Table 4 show that the weight of corn were significantly increased to 3820± 51.6 and 3981 ±60.4 kg/feddans in the plots treated with P. lilacinus in season 2013 and 2014 ., as compared to 2511 ± 50.9 and 2210 ± 73.2 kg/ feddan in the control respectively..

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Kumar Rajesh, Ansari Nafees Ahmad

Strengthening Local Governance through Democratizing Rural India

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Abstract: The process of globalization has led to discourses on development having different perspectives. One of the major upcoming development discourses puts gender and governance on the forefront of these. In this context, the government of India has amended their laws for fair representation of gender in the local government to ensure good governance. Notwithstanding the fact that constitutional support and legislative measures are necessary for bringing about social change, but this, however, cannot be achieved single-handedly. Constitutional efforts are needed to strengthen and consolidate them for meaningful empowerment. The question is whether an intervention like the constitutional amendment is able to ensure the local governance. Decentralization brings government closer to the people. The existence of local political arenas makes it easier for ordinary citizens to participate and exert influence. When power is brought closer to the citizens, the political process becomes more tangible and transparent and more people can become involved. Decentralization may also create a more open political system in that it implies a division of powers in society. The Village panchayats which formed an integral part of the national life, helped to preserve democratic traditions in social, cultural, economic and political life, survived the onslaughts of centuries of political upheavals and saved Indian society from disintegration.

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Shrivastava Amit Kumar , Kumar Bhupendra, Gangal V.K.

Special Economic zones- Overview on Growth and Export performance

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Abstract: A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country’s typical economic laws. The category ‘SEZ’ covers a broad range of more specific zone types, including Free Trade Zones (FTZ), Export Processing Zones (EPZ), Free Zones (FZ), Industrial Estates (IE), Free Ports, Urban Enterprise Zones and others. Usually the goal of an SEZ structure is to increase foreign investment, to generate employment and to give boost to export. The most successful Special Economic Zone in China, Shenzhen, has developed from a small village into a city with a population over 10 million within 20 years. Following the Chinese examples, Special Economic Zones have been established in several countries, including Brazil, India, Iran, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, the Philippines. Special economic zones (SEZs) have been rapidly proliferated all around the world with remarkable economic impact on world economy. By some estimates, there are approximately 3,000 zones in 135 countries today, accounting for over 68 million direct jobs and over $500 billion of direct trade-related value added within zones.

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El-Gali, Zahra Ibrahim .

Alternaria alternata Isolated From Lemons (Citrus lemon) in Libya

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Abstract: Lemons (Citrus lemon Burmann) is one of the citrus fruits of Libya. Blight symptoms was observed on plants were grown in homes gardens. I isolated and examined a fungus which causes leaf lesions and blight and fruits drop on lemons by using morphological method. Baseded on classification keys, the pathogen was compared on basis of morphological and characteristics, the recovered isolate from the plant tissues was identified as Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, and identified was confirmed by pathogenicity test.

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Mbah.N.Charles., Ukpa Calista., Nwali., Emmanuel., Attoe,E,Emmanuel.,Ojikpong.O. Tom. and  Idike .I. Francis..

Physicochemical Properties and Heavy Metal Content of Termite Mound in Relation to No-Mound and its Implication in Agriculture

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Abstract.Termite can be a major agricultural pest particularly in Africa where crop losses can be severe. This paper investigated the effect of termite mound (TM) and non-termite mound (NTM) on soil physico-chemical properties and heavy metal content of an ultisol in South Eastern Nigeria. Thirty soil samples were collected at 3 depths (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm) from TM and adjacent soil 50 m away (NTM). The samples were analyzed for bulk density (Bd) gcm- 3 , total porosity (%),OC%, available P, Ph, exchangeable bases, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and heavy metasl ( Fe,Zn) . Termite mound (TM) significantly improved soil physico-chemical properties relative to NTM. Soil bulk density significantly (p<0.05) decreased in TM relative to NTM. Observed Bd values ranged between 1.12-1.20 gcm-3 in TM and 1.30-1.51gcm-3 in NTM. Highest OC (2.18%) and CEC (1.72 cmolkg-1 ) values were observed at 0-20cm depth in TM . These values were 58% (OC%) and 28% (CEC), respectively, higher than OC% and CEC (Cmolkg-1 ) at same depth in NTM. Termite mound significantly increased heavy metal content (Zn, Fe) relative to NTM but not to Ecotoxological level.

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Kamel, Ayman and Sedky, A

Modification of Relativistic Lorentz’s Coefficient

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Abstract: We visualized a curvature path as a portion of irregular arc during the motion of particles with velocity v which is comparable to the speed of light c. This is slightly conflicts with the calculations of Lorentz’s time dilation and reflects a new considered type of movement for the motion of objects without falling under the influence of other forces but under the impact of the movement of the body itself. We succeed to modify Lorentz’s relativistic coefficient ɣ for time dilation in terms of h  b  Kh 2 2 4 formula for obtaining the length of irregular arc, where b and h are their base and height, and K is a constant. The relativistic Lorentz’s coefficient ) 2 2 (1 1 c v  becomes ) 2 2 2(1 )] 2 2 )(1 2 (4 2 [ c v c v K K K        . The calculated values of relativistic time t, Lorentz’s relativistic coefficient ɣ and path length ℓ for muons are 17.29 µs, 7.92 and 5135.13 m, which are higher than that of Lorentz’s (15.574 µs, 7.09 and 4625.48 m). Our results are discussed in terms of the mechanism of spiral path motion and understand a new meaning of speed changing spatially not temporally.

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Kamel, Ayman and Sedky, A

New Possible Formulas for Irregular Arc Length Determination

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Pudasaini, Rameshwor, Thapa, Resham Bahadur

Foraging Behavior of Different Honeybee Species under Natural Condition in Chitwan, Nepal

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Abstract: An experiment was conducted to know the foraging behavior of different honeybee species in rapeseed flower under natural conditions in Chitwan, Nepal during 2012-2013. This experiment shows that higher numbers of flowers were visited by Apis cerana F. as compared to Apis mellifera L. and Apis dorsata F. under natural condition at the same time of the day. Apis cerana F. visited 16.5 and 26.0 flowers and Apis mellifera L. visited 12.33 and 21.67 flowers, whereas Apis dorsata F. visited 9.33 and 15.83 flowers at 10:00 am and 2:00 pm of the day respectively. The peak foraging hours for all three bee species were recorded around 12:00 noon to 14:00 pm. Similarly, number per meter square of all three bee species were recorded more at 2:00 pm and least at 10:00 am. Among the three species of honeybees, Apis mellifera L. were recorded more number per meter square at 2:00 pm and 12:00 pm where as Apis cerana F. were recorded more at 10:00 am and 4:00 pm. It shows that Apis cerana F. visited higher number of flowers and was more efficient pollinator as compared to Apis mellifera L. and Apis dorsata F.

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Purnachandra Rao Koya1, Ayele Taye Goshu and Mohammed Yiha Dawed

Modeling Predator Population assuming that the Prey follows Richards Growth Model

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Abstract: In this paper, the predator-prey problem is studied with the assumptions that interaction of a predation leads to a little or no effect on growth of the prey population by relaxing the classical assumptions and the prey growth rate parameter is a positive valued function of time. The prey population is assumed to follow Richard’s model. Then the respective predator growth model is constructed and studied by simulation. Further analysis shows that for this model, the predator population size either converges to a finite positive limit or to 0 or diverges to +∞. It is shown algebraically and illustrated pictorially that there is a condition at which both the predator and prey population models converge to the same finite limit. Moreover, equilibrium points are identified and stability analysis is made and the details are included.

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Sabbour Magda , Maysa E. Moharam

Evaluations of Five Bacillus Species against Sitophilus Oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae ) Under Laboratory and Store Conditions

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Abstract: Under laboratory and store conditions fives bacterial cultures were tested against the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae the LC50s recorded 349, 160, 179, 99 and 112 Ug/ml B.T J, B.t 0900, Bt NRRL 2172, BT IP thurizide and Bt HD112; respectively. Application of the bacteria on foam covering gunny bags provided promising oviposition deterrency, toxicity and suppressing S. oryzae infestation, persistence and protecting rice seeds after 120 days during storage which reached to 11.8±1.7 after treated with B.t, BT IP thurizide as compared to 98.8±1.9 in the control During the storage period the percentage of seed infestations at the end of the experiments recorded 30, 24, 22, 1, 2 % in the sacs treated foam with B.T , J B.t 0900, Bt NRRL 2172, BT IP thurizide and Bt HD112 respectively as compared to 88 in the control.

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