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Vol 5 Issue 5

Volume  5  Issue  5

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Kenji Abe

A Paradigm Shift of Human Civilization

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Abstract: Today’s feelings of doom around the world are due to our internal negative attitude of compartmentalization and dehumanization, by which we designate an easy scapegoat and avoid facing our own problems. In order to release us from negative entrapment, we need to shift from this undesirable default to a positive new mode of de-compartmentalization and humanization. We must stop blaming others and start facing our own problems by integrating people and the earth into a whole. This is the way we shall attain true internal peace on this finite, organic planet.

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Kenji Abe, Ed.D.

A Simple Classification Chart of Serial Killers, Spree Killers, and Mass Murderers

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Abstract:Multiple murder is a popular topic for many movies, TV series, novels, and other art forms due to its seemingly mysterious nature. However, against the depictions of the perpetrators as being rather charismatic and charming personas, the reality is that they are individuals with serious personality disorders. To correct these misleading public images, this paper introduces a simple classification chart of serial, spree, and mass killers to promote correct public understandings of who they are and where they come from.

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Kenji Abe, Ed.D.

True Identity of Islamic Terrorists

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Abstract:The Trump administration is enforcing a travel ban on eight countries. However, actual assailants in past cases of Islamic terrorism were not necessarily from those countries. This paper presents a close examination of the backgrounds of past assailants to classify who they are and what motivated their actions, in an effort to prevent future tragedies as a result of terrorism.

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Sara Allabun and Shankar Srinivasan

Hospitalization Outcomes Of Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

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Abstract:The increase in the prevalence of obesity in a growing number of populations worldwide presents a rising health threat in this millennium. Overall, about 13% of the world adult population (11% of men and 15% of women) fell into the obese category in 2014. Management of overweight and obesity used to be through non-surgical methods including diet, exercise, medication, and changing life styles. However, commitment to all these methods is very hard. Hence, surgical intervention has been used on a wide scale. Many types of bariatric surgical procedures were applied, mostly restrictive types such as Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy, Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding, or Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.The overall goal of this research is to identify the factors and costs associated with patients undergoing different types of gastrectomy, in terms of length of stay in the hospital and the operations’ costs in different types of clinical settings across the United States.  Most patients who underwent the LSG had different kinds of comorbidity, for example; among 2012 candidates in the US, there were 34.22% who had hypertension, complicated or uncomplicated; 15.26% had uncomplicated diabetes; and 12.35% complained of depression.

According to this study’s results, a statistically significant association was found between length of stay in the hospitals, and consequently the total cost, and the following comorbidities: obesity (b=1.119, p<0.001), hypertension (b=0.076, p=0.022), and deficiency anemia (b=0.506, p<0.001). No statistically significant evidence of association between length of stay or total cost and hypothyroidism (p=0.12) or uncomplicated diabetes (p=0.385) was found.

Although Sleeve Gastrectomy is popular currently as a solution for obesity, research into the procedure’s long-term effects is scarce. More research is required to improve outcomes and to maximize the benefits of those procedures.

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S. Allabun, S. Srinivasan and S. Haque

Evaluation of Existing Electronic Health Records Systems

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Abstract: Electronic health records (EHR) systems facilitate the transfer and retrieval of information. The data can be accessible to health professionals, administrative staff, and even patients through the application of “meaningful use.”  The importance of sharing data among health organizations as part of the meaningful use program has been investigated in multiple studies. In a review of studies conducted between 2008 and 2013, investigators agreed on the importance of EHR systems adoption. In addition, the stages of meaningful use, and its benefits, have been evaluated in several other studies. New technology will create new approaches to remove obstacles facing the adoption of the EHR system and the sharing of health information. Further investigation is needed to prove the benefits of sharing information.

 Key Words: Electronic health records, electronic medical records, meaningful use.

Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Allabun, S., Srinivasan, S., and Haque, S. (2014) ‘Evaluation of Existing Electronic Health Records Systems’, Int. J. Medical Engineering and Informatics, Vol. x, No. x, pp. xx-xx.

Biographical notes: Sarah Allabun had a PHD in Health Informatics from Rutgers University, and is working at the College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA. Her research interests are in the areas of healthcare data analysis, Health Electronic Records, and enterprise wide healthcare web services.

Shankar Srinivasan is currently an Associate Professor in Rutgers-SHRP’s Health Informatics Department and has taught in universities in Singapore and Australia. His research interests are mainly in the areas of health care data analysis, neuro-fuzzy systems and enterprise wide health care web services. He has published in various international conference proceedings and journals.

Syed Haque is a Professor of Health Informatics at Rutgers-SHRP. His interest areas include health care outcomes measurement and research and health care data mining. He has published extensively in journals and in several conferences, and has also served as Chair in several international conferences. He has been Recognized/Certified as Internationally Registered Technology Specialist (IR7), by the Secretariat to the IRTS Council, International Technology Institute, San Diego, CA. He is also on the Editorial Board of The Journal on Information Technology in Healthcare.

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JOSHI, PRIYANKA , UPADHYAYA, ANSHULIKA

Influence of Salt Stress signals on accumulation of secondary metabolites in Cichorium intybus

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Abstract: Cichorium intybus (L.) belongs to family Asteraceae and it is an erect perennial herb, 30-90 cm in height, with a fleshy tap root. Chicory is gaining interest because of its nutritional values and medicinal characteristics due to its high concentrations of secondary metabolites such as Inulin, Caffeic Acid derivatives, Flavonoids, Polyphenols, Sesquiterpene Lactones, Tannins, Alkaloids, Proline etc. In the present study, seeds of chicory grown in MS media containing different salt (NaCl) concentration i.e. 20, 40, 60, 80 mM. While studying accumulation of  secondary metabolites such as phenol, flavonoids and proline content due to salt stress, it was found that Phenole, Flavonoid and Proline content was increase up to certain amount of salt concentration and then it showed decline phase. From the present study, it is suggested that salt stress condition alters the internal environment of cell making them stressed and this contribute to their ability to accumulate secondary metabolites.

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Professor Theresa Ohi Odumuh Dr. Taiwo Famogbiyele

Applying Discourse Analysis in the Nigerian Classroom with a Specific Focus on the Teaching of Discourse Markers as a Tool for Understanding Comprehension

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Abstract: Reading is an important skill. In fact, it has been described ‘as a tool for academic, professional, and personal development in the world today’ (Richards & Renandya, 2001, p.227). Despite these important roles, ESL students, it is noted, have not measured up. The introduction of discourse analysis into the classroom has, despite its relative novelty, added a new frame to the understanding of language and its usage, and in this sense has given the teacher new tools with which to cater for students’ needs. Discourse Markers (DMs) are effective factors to connect sentences, hence making the text coherent. However, teachers in Nigeria, generally, do not pay much attention to teaching how to relate sentences together to form stretches of connected discourse. In this paper discourse analysis shall be examined, focusing on the use of cohesive devices and more specifically on discourse markers as a useful tool to enable students to make logical connections and coherent stretches of written discourse. By this, it is hoped that students will acquire the skills that will help them to comprehend and understand the nuances of communicative strategies in the target language since comprehension and understanding are the primary focus behind most forms of communication.

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Bukhari Aleena, Shahid Sidra, Zahaira Masooma

Marginalization of Women in Beat Generation: On the Road

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Abstract:The present research aims to explore the place of women in Beat Generation in Kerouac’s On the Road. It tries to shed light upon marginalization of women in American society of 1950s and 1960s.  In the postwar era women had been considered as a structure without any feelings and emotions. The male members of American society take women as objects of their use especially in Beat Generation female had not any importance and they had been marginalized to a great extent. This research explores the gender issues in Beat Generation that how marriage, love and relationships had been viewed in American society and how the male members of society deal with the females. I have selected a novel On the Road by Jack Kerouac which deals with the marginalization of women in Beat Generation. This research truly explains the place of women in an American society of 1950s and it aims to explore that the women are important members of society and they should get the same importance as like men.

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Ayandiji A. and Osoba P.

Social and Psychological Effects of Drug Abuse among Rural Youths in Ogun State

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Abstract: The effect of drug abuse on rural youths in Nigeria has grave consequences on different aspects of rural youth lives such as their education, occupation and employment, families, communities, health, social and psychological lives. This study investigated social and psychological effects of drug abuse among rural youths in Ogun State, with specific objective to; (a) identify the youths involved in drugs in the study area, (b) examine the reasons for taking drugs in the study area and (c) examine the effects of drugs abuse in the study area. Three-stage stratified random sampling technique was used to sample one hundred and five (105) respondents in the study area. Data collected were analysed using descriptive (frequency distribution, percentages, mean) and multivariate discriminate analysis. Results showed that 81.9% of the respondents took alcohol than any other drugs because they are widely available, and easy to purchase. The highest proportions (65.7%) of the respondents were still taking alcohol. Also, 55.2% of the respondents strongly agree to take a drug in order to be bold among peers and strong to carry out various tasks. Also, social effect of drug abuse is feeling high and addiction while drowsiness was found as a psychological effect. Discriminate analysis showed that 94 out of 105 respondents were still taken drugs, and 29 (30.9%) claimed to still be taken drugs but their attributes (family size) shows that they were not actually taken drugs anymore while 65 (59.1%) of the respondents that claimed to still be taken drugs. The study shows that most of the respondents that were prune to having chronic and acute social and psychological effects of drug if they continue. There is an urgent need for more adequate awareness of the rural youths on the adverse effects of drug abuse as it gradually becoming an acceptable way of life for rural youths in Ogun state and Nigeria at large.

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Recep Kürkçü

The Effects of Quick Strength Training Method on Badminton Players’ Respiratory Functions, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure, Heart, Respiration and Circulation Parameters

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Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the effects of Quick Strength training method on badminton players’ respiratory functions, heart rate, and blood pressure. The sample of this study includes 18 male badminton players who participate in training at least 3 days in a week, 2 hours, are 16.610.6 year age averages, 164.49.3 cm height average, 54.6 11.4 kg bodyweight. Before and after participating in circuit training program, these volunteer badminton participants’ heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respiratory rate (RR), forced expiratory volume (FEV), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) have been examined. The researchers have found that the participant badminton players’ respiratory rate, heart rate (HR) (p<0.01), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p<0.05) have been dramatically increased after participating in circuit training method. On the other hand, the participant badminton players’ forced expiratory volume, peak expiratory flow rate, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) have not been changes after participating in circuit training method.

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Mr. Kaushik H. Raviya, Dr. Ashish M. Kothari

Comparative Study of Digital Image Watermarking Based I.J.Cox’s Algorithm versus proposed Hybrid DWT-DCT Approach

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Abstract:Quantity of data over the internet is growing day by day due to rapid growth in technology, requirement for security of these data like image, audio, video, text are also increasing. Digital watermarking technique has become more significant in today’s era of internet. Digital watermarking is a protector of the information in the form of audio, images and video against the illicit distribution. A robust image watermarking techniques is considered for this paper based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) combined called hybrid watermarking. Two levels and three levels DWT performs the hybrid watermarking followed by respective DCT on the host image. The simulation results are often compared with I.J.Cox’s algorithm. By computing a statically parameter like Mean square error (MSE), Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) under the various attack like image cropping, noise and resize proposed hybrid approach preserves the best quality image. The proposed hybrid approach gives better Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) compared to I.J.Cox’s algorithm. The proposed hybrid approach can drive in bigger marks and high quality marks extracted from the embedded watermarking even after attacking condition. The algorithm has been implemented on MATLAB with the graphical user interface (GUI).

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Ilugbo Stephen Olubusola, Babatunde A. Adebo, Olomo Kazeem Oladimeji, Adebiyi Ayodele Daniel

Application of Gis and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis to Geoelectric Parameters for Modeling of Groundwater Potential around Ilesha, Southwestern Nigeria

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Abstract: A geoelectric investigation of groundwater potential around Ilesha, southwestern Nigeria was carried out with a view to providing information on the geoelectric characteristic of the subsurface sequence, bedrock topography, subsurface structural features and their hydrogeologic significance, in order to identify aquifer units and determine possible areas for groundwater potential zones. The study involved the use of Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding data at sixty eight (68) stations. Groundwater potential map was also generated from the integration of geoelectric parameterss using multi-criteria evaluation techniques. The results obtained from this study illustrate that the integration of the data handling method proposed in this study with geophysical technique can provide inexpensive, reliable and accurate method for characterizing, assessing and evaluating an aquifer system. The method can also be adopted in other geophysical studies, where challenges of making accurate and reliable decision from set of multiple criteria are faced. The investigated area has been classified into very low, low, moderate and high groundwater potential zones and the results from borehole and well data across the entire study area were used to validate the accuracy of the groundwater potential map. . Closures observed in the eastern and southeastern parts are indicative of high groundwater prospect zones. Moderate groundwater prospect zones were also observed at the eastern, southeastern, southwestern and a small closure at the northern parts of the study area. Low groundwater prospect zones were observed at the southern, southeastern, southwestern, central, northeastern and northwestern parts of the study area. Also, very low groundwater prospect zone was observed at the western and a small closure in some parts of the study area. From the results obtained, it indicates that the investigated area is an area of low groundwater potential.

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Hadi Karimi , Mahmoud GhasemiNejad Raeini , Mohammad Amin Asoodar, Navab Kazemi, Abbas Abdeshahi

Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Flow for Mechanized and Conventional Pistachio Orchards Using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) Approach

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Abstract:The main purposes of this study were to compare the energy flow, measure the technical efficiency levels in production systems of mechanized and conventional pistachio orchards using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) method and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of pistachio production systems in Iran. For this purpose, the data on 120 pistachio production orchard in Kerman province, Iran, were collected and analyzed. The results showed that total energy input for conventional orchards (71.82 GJ ha-1) is greater than other system. Energy ratio, energy productivity and net energy were higher for mechanized orchards by 1.96, 0.08kg MJ-1and 57.60 GJ ha-1.The benefit to cost ratio was 9.98 and 5.80 and net return was 36637.08 $ ha-1 and 24165.09 $ ha-1 for mechanized orchards and conventional orchards, respectively. Study shows that the conventional orchards emit the highest carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.) emission (4237.38 kg CO2 eq. ha-1), and diesel fuel and Nitrogen (N) are among the most important sources of CO2 emission. Our empirical results indicate that, cultivation system, education, Participation in the class extension, trees pruning and manure pit method have a significant influence on technical efficiency levels. We find that conventional orchards obtain average technical efficiencies of %88, which is lower than mechanized orchards, which achieve average technical efficiencies of0.96 which is an optimum level.

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Kenji Abe

A Paradigm-Shift of Human Civilization: A Practical Guide

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Abstract: Today’s world is basked in feelings of doom. In our heart, we all feel that something must be done to break us out of this ill-fated situation. But what exactly can we do? This paper proposes one such direction that we can pursue to pull ourselves out of this indescribable entrapment.

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Mansour, H. A., Ebtisam I. Eldardiry, M. Abd El-Hady

Validation by AquaCrop Model for Faba Bean Yield, Water Productivity under Smart Controller of Drip Irrigation System and Compost Fertilizer in Sandy Soil

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Abstract: The aim of this study is to validate faba bean crop yield and water productivity by AquaCrop model and studying the effect of smart Controller of drip irrigation system, two rates of compost fertilizer main factors and different Field capacities treatments on faba bean yield, water productivity (WP). Field experiments were carried out at the Agricultural Research Station, National Research Centre, El-Nubaria district, Egypt (latitude of 30o30N and longitude of 30o20E) during the winter season of 2017/2018 in a sandy soil with Faba bean (Vica Faba) variety (G461), Faba bean was planted on the last week of October and growing season lasted 150 days. Under Smart controller drip irrigation system, three irrigation rates of the following field capacities: 60, 80, and 100 and two compost fertilizer additions: 80 kg/fed and 40 kg/fed. The best results of Faba bean yield and WP were by using compost fertilizer (80 kg/fed) with Field capacity (100 %FC) while the lowest results were by using compost fertilizer (40 kg/fed) with Field capacity (60 %FC). It could be concluded that the biggest added amount of compost fertilizer 100 kg / fed impacted positively on faba bean plants because they contain more amount of macro and micro nutrients and it helps save water with sandy soil, which leads to avoid water stress as well. The deviation percentage between the measured and simulated values by the AquaCrop model shows that the use of the compost fertilizer 40 kg feddans was the closest to the reality in order to provide the largest possible amount of fertilizer added to produce the same amount of harvest obtained and the same applies to water productivity while was the closest to reality in water stress using 100 FC followed by 80 FC and 60 FC. Water shortage under drip irrigation leads to more water stress, which adversely effect on yield and WP, faba bean plants avoid the water stress under 100 % FC but adversely affected by water stress under FC (60 and 80) %.

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Yassen A. A. , Abd El-Rheem Kh. M. and Mohamed M. H.

Response of Eggplant Seedless to Soil Application of Vermicompost on Growth, Yield and Nutritional Status

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Abstract: This investigation was conducted during 2016&2017 on eggplant seedless grown in sandy soil, irrigated by drip irrigation at the farm of National Research Centre located at El-Nubaria District, El – Behira Governorate. This study aimed to the effect of different rates of vermicompost on vegetative growth, nutritional status, yield and fruit quality of eggplants.  The treatments consisted of plant residues vermicompost with different levels (0.0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 ton fed-1) were applied.  Vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf macro elements parameters were recorded.  The obtained data results showed that applying vermicompost fertilizer at 3 ton fed-1 was statically the most effective superior, whereas the greatest plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of branch, fresh weight of stem and roots, dry weight of stem and roots, fresh and dry weight of leaves were obtained.  However, yield and fruit weight were significantly improved by bench soil applied with vermicompost at 2 ton fed-1.  In addition, application of vermicompost fertilizer at the rate of (2 and 3 ton fed-1) gave a significant increase in most growth parameters.  Also, all treatments under study increased in all leaves macro elements content (N, P and K).  Generally, application of vermicompost at 2 and 3 ton fed-1 treatments was statistically the superior all evaluated parameters under study dealing with vegetative growth, leaf macro elements, yield and fruit quality of eggplant seedless.

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Mansour, Hani. A., Camelia, Y. El-Dewiny, Kassem A. S. Mohammed and El-Metwally M. Selim

Response of Corn Plants to Modified Closed Circuits of Bubbler Irrigation System and Nitrogen Fertilization Rates

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Abstract: This work aimed to study the effect of bubbler irrigation circuits (BIS) and nitrogen (N) fertilization on vegetative growth, yield parameters and NPK contents in corn crop. To achieve this purpose in field, experiment for two growing seasons were conducted in sandy soil at the Experimental Farm of National Research Center, Research and Production Station, El-Noubaria, El-Behaira Governorate. Field experiment was arranged as factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replicates. First factor was nitrogen fertilization rates (NFR) which was added at three rates (50, 70, 90 kg Fed-1) (Feddan [Fed] = 4200 m2). Second factor was bubbler irrigation circuits (BIS) which was executed at three systems) one manifold for lateral lines or closed circuits with one manifold of bubbler irrigation system (CM1BIS); 2) closed circuits with two manifolds for lateral lines (CM2BIS), and 3) traditional bubbler irrigation system (TBIS) as a control. Obtained results revealed that the effect of different BIS and NFR on NPK contents in corn grain. According to BIS and NFR could be ranked in the following descending orders: CM1BIS > CM2BIS >TBIS and NFR1 ≥ NFR2 > NFR3, respectively. The effect of interaction BIS X NFR on vegetative growth, yield parameters, and NPK (%) in corn grain mentioned above was significant at the 1% level with few exceptions. Concerning to vegetative growth and yield parameters (leaf area (cm2), plant height (cm), leaf length (cm), number of leaves plant-1, grain and Stover yield (Kg fed-1), BIS and NFR used could be ranked in the following ascending orders: TBIS < CM2BIS < CM1BIS and NFR3 < NFR2 < NFR1, respectively for all studied parameters.

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Mansour, Hani. A., Ebtisam I. Eldardiry and M. Abd El-Hady

The Effect of Different Irrigation systems, Nitrogen Levels and Egyptian Wheat Varieties on Flour Quality Parameters

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Abstract:The current research work was conducted at the farm of National Research Center, El-Noubaria Research and Production Station El-Behaira Governorate, during the two successive seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 to study the response of four wheat varieties: 1- Sakha 93, 2- Sakha 94, Misr 1, and Gemmeza 9 varieties to irrigation systems, different Nitrogen fertilizer levels on some technological parameters of wheat.

The results could be summarized as follows: quality parameters % net flour, % of grain protein, % fat, % total sugar and % wet gluten in flour and % dry gluten in flour), nitrogen treatments were increased by (1.8, 11.5, 19.7, 30.8, 2.8; 11.9 %), (1.7, 10.4, 20.7, 18.8, 4.5; 9.8 %) and (1.4, 10.7, 9.6, 32.7, 4.6; 10.7 %), respectively under drip irrigation system relative to sprinkler irrigation system. It could be concluded that: For best grain quality production purpose using drip irrigation system and nitrogen levels 80 or 60 kg/fed with a variety of Sakha 93 and 94. While for better flour we can recommend using drip irrigation system and nitrogen level 80 or 60 kg/fed and verity of Sakha 94 and Misr 1.

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Mansour, Hani. A., Ebtisam I. Eldardiry, M. Abd El-Hady

Response of Egyptian Wheat Varieties to Irrigation Systems and Nitrogen Fertilization Rates

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Abstract: The current research work was conducted at the farm of National Research Center, Research and Production Station, El-Noubaria, El-Behaira Governorate, during the two successive seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 to study the response of four wheat varieties: 1- Sakha 93, 2- Sakha 94, Misr 1, and Gemmeza 9 varieties to different irrigation systems (sprinkler and drip), Nitrogen fertilizer levels (60, 90, 120 Kg/fed) on yield and its components. It aimed to evaluate the effect of different irrigation systems, Nitrogen fertilizer levels and different wheat varieties on yield, yield components of wheat as a flour source for human nutrition’s. The experiments included two irrigation systems and three levels of nitrogen, i.e. 60, 90, 120 kg/fed. The design experiment was factorial in complete randomized blocks with three replicates.

The results could be summarized as follows: under drip irrigation systems Grain yield, 1000 kernel weight and moisture in grain at harvest under (60 Kg/fed), (90 Kg/fed) and (120 Kg/fed) nitrogen treatments were increased by (6.7, 5.0; 0.8 %), (6.2, 4.3; 4.9 %) and (5.9, 4.8; 4.6 %), respectively comparing with sprinkler irrigation system. On the other hand, grain yield, 1000 kernel weight and moisture in grain at harvest under Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Misr 1 and Gemmeiza 9 varieties increased by (7.1, 4.5; 0.3), (6.9, 5.5; 7.1), (6.3, 3.7; 6.5) and (4.2, 5.1; 2.8), respectively under drip irrigation system relative to sprinkler irrigation system. Finally, it could be concluded that: although nitrogen120 kg/fed treatment gave the highest values but it was less in the significant differences between results values, so that for best grain yield production and its components purpose using drip irrigation system and nitrogen level nitrogen 90 or 60 kg/fed with a variety of Sakha 93 and 94. While for better flour we can recommend using drip irrigation system and nitrogen level 90 or 60 kg/fed and verity of Sakha 94 and Misr 1.

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Mansour, Hani. A., and Sameh K. Abd-Elmaboud

Effect of Sub-Surface Drip Irrigation on Moisture and Salinity Distribution under Different Water Deficit and Depths

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm of National Research Center, Research and Production Station, El-Noubaria, El-Behaira Governorate with the aim to study the effect of sub-surface drip irrigation system, different soil depths, different Field capacities on soil moisture and salinity distribution patterns. Under sub-surface drip irrigation system, three irrigation rates 50, 75, and 100 from the field capacity and at three soil depths (0-10), (10-20) and (20-30) were selected for the study. Observations revealed that soil distributions patterns were affected significantly by the different field capacities FC according to the following order: 100 % > 75 % > 50%. Whereas could be arrange the soil depths 10>20>30 for soil moisture distributions patterns and 30>20>10 for salinity distribution patterns and in both cases, there were not significant differences. The interactions of field capacities and irrigation systems were significant. Finally, it can be concluded to using the field capacity of 75 % FC and 50 % because the treatment of with before and after irrigation water amount has been saved and it gave not different significantly with other treatments of field capacities and gave positive effects on moisture and salinity distribution patterns under sub-surface drip irrigation system.

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