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Vol 4 Issue 8

Volume  4  Issue  8

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Rudra Tapash, Saremi Sarvenaz

PROMETHEUS UNBOUND: SHELLY’S SPIRIT ON NATURE PERSONIFIED

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Abstract:

History and historical events play a crucial part on the overall outcome of an era. One of the most striking examples of this is the French Revolution or what we commonly call ”Renaissance”. To illustrate in depth, this revolutionary phenomenon not only created havoc on the industrial, socio-economic aspects of Continental Europe, at the same time produced a bang on the English Romantic literature as a whole. ”Renaissance” dented a significant point on the body of English Romantic poetry as well. The principle criteria of the poems after French Revolution were to challenge the traditional thought processes of that era through a rapid impulse and action. Parsley Bysshe Shelley was one of the stalwarts of this concept of the younger generation of poets during that very era. Prometheus Unbound (1820) is a mind-blowing success of Shelley’s deep conviction that moral reconstruction is an outcome of revolt subjected to social and political changes. In this particular essay, we would like to stress on how Shelley looked upon nature and its outcome in a realistic but intriguingly opportunistic way. Moreover, this work is focused on a fact that how much a poet can believe in human abilities to transform a world upside down by means of rapid impulse, courage and off course, sacrifice. In order to emphasize our points we have categorized the work into as many as three different sections. The first section comprises of the life and thoughts of the young poet like Shelley. It also includes the overall poetic works of the poet. The second portion contains the poem ”Prometheus unbound” which not to mention, our potential resource and the essay is revolved around this. This is the weapon used by Shelley to see the Romance of nature and natural outcome differently. We concluded the essay by sharing the points how Shelley emerged as a new viewer of nature using a myth like Prometheus.

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Mohamed K. Refai , Mahmoud El-Hariri1and Randa Alarousy

Cryptococcosis in Animals and Birds: A Review

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Abstract:

Cryptococcus infections in bovines was mostly reported in association with mastitis, mainly in cattle. Cryptococcus neoformans was recognized as the cause of severe outbreaks of mastitis in cattle  and also in sporadic cases in buffaloes. Bovine systemic cryptococcosis was rarely diagnosed. In camels, cryptococcosis is very rare. It has been reported in South American camelids (llamas, alpacas and vicunas). In equines, cryptococcosis is  uncommon. The nasal cavity is the most common site of infection. Sporadic cases have been associated with granulomatous pneumonia, nasal granuloma, endometritis and placentitis with neonatal cryptococcal pneumonia, abortion and mesenteric lymph node abscesses.  Cryptococcal meningitis in equines is almost associated with pneumonia and disseminated infection. Cryptococcus species were reported in sheep and goats as causes of mastitis. Experimental mastitis in goats was induced by unilateral intramammary inoculation of Cryptococcus neoformans. Nasal cryptococcosis is frequently seen as clinical signs in cats and dogs. With time, infections involving the nasal cavity can spread to adjacent structures and disseminate to the brain and other organ and even the skin. Cryptococcal pneumonia and meningitis due to Cryptococcus gatti was reported also in goats. In wild animals, cryptococcosis occurs in different animals and Cryptococcus species. can affect the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems, nasal cavity and eyes.

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Allam,N. ; Gaber,W. ; Helaly M.

Antibody Clustering in Systemic lupus Erythematosus and their clinical correlates

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Abstract:

The aim of the present work was to study the presence of lupus autoantibodies in clusters and their associations with clinical features and organ damage in Egyptian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: A cross-sectional study included 150 SLE patients.  All patients had full systemic examination with routine laboratory and immunological profile testing (ANA, Anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm, anti Ro/SSA, anti La/SSB, anti-RNP, Lupus anticoagulant and ACL (IgG and IgM) antibodies). In addition, items on Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Committee/ American College of Rheumatology damage index (SLICC/ACR damage Index) were calculated.  Results: Patients in cluster-1 (DNA/RNP/Sm) were distinguished by a younger mean age at diagnosis and a statistically significant higher prevalence of pleurisy and nephritis (mainly class IV), a higher renal damage and a higher mean cumulative dose of cyclophosphamide. Patients in cluster-2 (Ro/La) had a statistically significant higher prevalence of sicca manifestations, arthritis, discoid rash, photosensitivity, a higher dermatologic damage. Conclusion: this study supports the existence of lupus autoantibodies in clusters with distinct clinical features, allowing the prediction of subsequent disease course and organ damage and may help direct the treatment and predict the prognosis of SLE patients.

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El-Esawy Basem, Alshehri Saad, Almehmadi Mazen, Elaskary Ahmad

Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Mantle Cell Lymphoma Variants

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Abstract:

Introduction: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an intermediate grade lymphoma characterized by reciprocal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32) which results in cyclin D1 overexpression. Several variant forms of MCL are recognized, namely, classical, centrocytic, blastoid & pleomorphic type. The former two are considered non aggressive & the later two show aggressive behaviour. The purpose of the study was to study and compare the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of MCL and its variants.

Materials and Methods: All cases diagnosed as MCL in our institution over a period of 4½ years were included in this study. Histoppathology was reviewed and a panel of IHC comprising CD3, CD5, CD10, CD20, CD23, cyclin D1, Bcl2, Ki67 and TDT was done on all cases.

Results: 15 cases of MCL were identified: 2 small cell, 4 centrocytic, seven blastoid & two pleomorphic, variant. They were grouped into non-aggressive (classical and small cell variant) and aggressive (blastoid and pleomorphic variant) groups. The aggressive group had a higher mitotic rate, Ki67 proliferative index and poor prognosis. All cases show strong positivity for cyclin D1 & CD20 and variable expression of CD5 & CD10 with complete negativity for CD23 & TDT.

Conclusions: Our study highlights that MCL can have different histological appearances which can lead to diagnostic confusion with various other lymphomas. Since aberrant IHC expressions are also frequent, a cautious approach using a panel of IHC markers is essential for a correct diagnosis. Blastoid and pleomorphic subtypes may strongly express Ki67 and have a poor outcome.

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Witheridge Janet, Macnab Andrew J

Accounting For the Cost of Open Access Publication

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This commentary explores the option for a funding agency to provide its grantees with the funds required to publish their research in open access (OA). The benefits of OA, including the high visibility of articles from being freely available online immediately they are published and the increased citation rates that follow, are relevant to scientists and becoming of increasing interest to granting agencies. A small European granting agency reviewed all the publications generated in 2015 and 2016 from their research awards, and calculated the costs that would have been required for these to be OA in the journals that published them. The totals each year came close to 10% of the agency’s annual funding budget. Larger agencies may have more leeway to adopt an OA funding policy. Meantime there is a growing trend for OA to become a requirement of funded research.

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