European Journal of Academic Essays 1(1): 1-5, 2014
The effect of rational organization on the staff performances in education administration of Tehran, district 4 staff
Mersedeh Adabi1, Golnar Adabi2
1,2 Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, U.E.A Branch
Abstract: From the rational theory perspective, an organization is a means to achieve certain and established goals. Being rational is not only objective, but also incorporate ways to achieve the goal. In any organization, after the implementation of rational systems, its effectiveness on the organization’s output including staff performances must be explored. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of rational organization on performance of employees at district 4 of Tehran’s education administration, through the statistical software SPSS and Lisrel for structural equation of model. Results showed a positive and significant correlation between the effects of rationalization on the performance of staff of district 4 education administration.
Keywords: rational organization, performance, staffs (personnel) performance
It’s obvious that organization’s survival and advancement in today’s competitive world require continues improvement of their performance, they cannot achieve their goals and objectives without considering the quantity and quality of staff performances, and also the factors affecting their performance. Now that a lot of employees are gathered in order to achieve the higher goals of the Islamic educational system, its call for a considerable amount of feedback from the employee’s performance; because the organizational performance have not necessarily depends only on staff performance, there are other important factors that influence organizational output in addition to staff performance . Nowadays, organizations experience a changing and altering situation, and in strive for attain their efficacy and effectiveness and finally accomplishing their set and established goals; adequate attention to its human resources is inevitable. Perhaps more than anything, it is their attitudes that have impact on their performance and efficiency . Rational organizations are one of the factors that can have an impact on organizational performance. Rational approach view organization as tools to achieve specific and precise goals, and this wisdom is not about how to select the goals, but it’s about how to implement the goals. While natural approach consider some complexity for goals and objectives, and won’t look at organization as a means to reach the goals, but the main goal is the survival of the organization, which can lead to the definition of new goals, or to change the strategy and goals of the organization, and survival is an intermediate goal for achieving the ultimate goal of power, prestige and credit. In the natural approach, they believe that employees pursue different goals along with the survival of organization – that is the source of power and desirability – which these different objectives are not necessarily equal and aligned with the organizational goals. Organizations should devote a part of their energy to them .
The District 4 educational administration is a dynamic and active organization in which, the organizational performance is of great importance. In order to put this on action according to plan, the approach of rational organization system will have many applications in accomplishing this goal.
- Review of literature
Organization is a social entity, which has a goal and procedures and due to its deliberate structure, performs special activities and have known boundaries. The staff and human resources play important role in fulfilling the organizational goals and objectives. Its human resources responsibility to accomplish the organizational tasks and assignment, also, individual performance of staffs are the same as organizational performance.
Performance of any organization is a function of its human resources. Inspired interaction and motivated contribution of human resources in effective and efficient use of resources, facilities and available technology; playing a key role in achieving the goals and mission of the organization. Organizations that manage their human resources in an appropriate manner, they bring about organizational excellence and development. Indeed, organizations are able to grow and develop if they continually develop their employees’ performance; and to achieve this goal, the professional qualifications of staff should be promoted.
In today’s changing and altering situation, organizations can achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness, and ultimately achieve their goals if paying enough attention to their human resources. Perhaps more than anything is people’s attitudes, which influence their effectiveness and performance .
There are different definitions of job performance, but what is common to all these definitions is how to perform the assigned tasks and responsibilities. Some have called the manpower performance as job productivity, but it should be noted that the concept is beyond input and outputs. Performance is the sum of the individual behaviors shown regarding to their occupation. In another definition, performance is the function to accomplish the tasks that the human resources has been responsible by organization. In a fairly comprehensive definition of performance, it is defined as the efficiency and effectiveness in assigned tasks and some personal data such as accident, delay in attending to work, absenteeism and working slowly. In this definition, Performance is the ratio of results to the resources used, and the effectiveness is the achievement of predetermined targets; on the other hand, factors such as absenteeism, slow working, delays and accidents may be appropriate metrics to measure performance . Performance is measured at individual, group and organizational level. Factors affecting individual performance are: the ability to learn, personality, perception, motivation .
Performance is the sum of job -related behaviors that people exhibit. Performance is predicted criteria or standards depended keys in the provided framework, which in this context the framework is operate as a means for judging the effectiveness of individuals, groups and organizations. Performance is the results of activities of an individual, in terms of implementation of assigned tasks at any given time. The result or outcome of the process and goals is performance. Process means, do whatever needs to be done in stages, so it must work; and attaining goals means that compliance with work procedures will achieve the goal. Performance is a behavior in order to achieve organizational goals which is measured or valued.
Armstrong  has defined performance as: achieve the goals that quantity and quality of them have been set. The Oxford English Dictionary defined performance as implementation, application and doing regular or committed task and responsibility . In addition to being associated with the defined input and outputs, but also shows that performance is relevant to work and its results; thus, the performance can be considered as a behavior. The other expert view performance as function of joint effort, ability. Performance is a joint function of effort, ability and role perceptions .
Behaviors are not just tools to achieve results, but in turn, they are outcomes which are derived from the product of physical and mental activity and can be seen isolated from the results .
- The rational organization
From a rational point of view, the organization is a tool that designed to achieve specific objectives. The term rational refers to the range of a series of activities that have been organized in a manner that contributes to the achievement of predetermined goals as efficiently as possible. The rational system point of view refers to organizational behavior as activities executed through an organized and coordinated agents.
|Table 1: Definition of performance (Armstrong, 2007: 12).|
|Brumbach||1988||Performance is the behavior and results|
|Robbins||1989||performance is the efficiency and effectiveness in the assigned duties|
|Campbell||1990||Process that is result of behavior and independent of the results|
|Armstrong||1994||Achieve the goals with set quantity and quality|
|Bernadin||1995||Performance is the work results|
|Kane||1996||The process by which a person does not notice it and actually separated from the goal|
The above expression implies calculating rational thought, and words such data, efficacy, optimization, implementation, designing are used frequently in relation to organization. Rational systems theorists emphasize the specificity and formality of targeted goals, because each of these factors plays an important role in rationalization of organizational activities .
The most important features of rational organization is goal setting. Goals are desirable targets and inputs. The thought varies in terms of accuracy and specification of suitability criteria. Certain and set purposes not only criterion for selection among alternative activities, but also guiding decisions about how to design the structure. Some organizations are supporting the aims quite vague and general, but use fairly certain goals in their daily operations, which is a criterion for selection among alternative activities, or to design the organizational structure . Another common feature is the formality of rational ideas. All rational system theorists are emphasizing on the existence and importance of the formal and quorum structure. Structure is formal if rules that affect behaviors are formulated quite clearly and precisely; and the roles and relationships, regardless of the personal views of its personnel system, must be in a predetermined structure. The formality may be recognized by standardization or adjustment of behavior, in an attempt to better forecasting of it in the future. The formality also is an attempt to define the relationships structures clearly and objectively; between a set of roles and principles that have governed the behavior of the system. Formality can help rationalism through indirect ways. In addition to help in readiness for informed planning, structured expectations, and prior to the occurrence of interaction, there are also other advantages .
- Some theories based on rational approach
Taylor’s scientific management theory, considering the practical aspects of management, performed scientific analysis of jobs, ergometer and time-survey and emphasize on increasing productivity by enhancing the performance. Taylor’s approach is a win-win approach in the organizations, and the employees through a more scientific way of doing things, could also receive higher salary, and on the other hand, increasing the company’s revenues .
Unlike Taylor, Fayol emphasize on management duties in top-down view, and believed in setting administrative principles to rationalize the organizational processes. These views include two key principles, the coordination and specialty. Principles such as unity of command control for coordination purposes, and principles such as organizing or separation of staff and activity for specialization .
German sociologist Max Weber proposed authority levels, which may lead to a different structure. Traditional authority structure that result in heredity structure. Law abides authority which results in its perfect bureaucracy. It is more durable; and charismatic authority which is important in times of crisis and instability. In his theory of bureaucracy, he described qualitative aspects of management, clear job division, clear hierarchy, established formal procedures and selection based on ability to pay. The theory of obedience to superiors is also a means to achieve organizational goals, and their aim is to follow the hierarchy.
Simon introduced the concept of the administrative human, with more human factors and numerous goals; which partly differentiate humans from Taylor robot. Administrative human of Simon didn’t seek an optimal solution, but is seeking a satisfactory solution. Based on goal-tool chain in decision-making, Simon was believed that in order to achieve organizational goals, tools was defined which transform to goals in the next turn, and the process continues .
- The main hypothesis
The rational organization has an impact on employee performance in the District 4 of Tehran education administration.
- Auxiliary assumptions
Goals in the rational organization system are influential on staff performance in the District 4 of Tehran education administration.
Systems in the rational organization system are influential on staff performance in the District 4 of Tehran education administration.
Processes in the rational organization system are influential on staff performance in the District 4 of Tehran education administration.
Strategic units in the rational organization system are influential on staff performance in the District 4 of Tehran education administration.
Competitive framework in the rational organization system is influential on staff performance in the District 4 of Tehran education administration.
- Population, sampling method and sample size
Questionnaire will be collected among 120 staff and experts. Sample size was calculated based on Cochran’s formula. Sampling technique is random sampling. Cochran’s formula is one of the most widely used methods for calculating the sample size. Total population have been calculated 180 participants and final sample was 120 subject.
- Materials and Methods
The research was a descriptive survey. In this research, books, articles in the library, the Internet and databases, as well as dissertation conducting research related to this topic, archives as well as a questionnaire and survey were used to collect data and information. The questionnaire was a researcher-made questionnaire, and the reliability and validity of the questionnaire tested through opinions of professors and experts, as well as chornbach alpha test which was conducted with 30 subjects; and then distributed among staff. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test was performed using SPSS software. To determine the structural equation model, the amount of weight and influence of LISREL software was used.
- The demographic
|Table 2: Demographic Findings|
|Field of study
|Years of experience||1-5||50|
Figure 1: Structural equation of research model
Given that this study was done using SPSS software, and considering that this software provides significance level after calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient; so in the results of the analyzes if significance level is less than 1 %, it is concluded that there are significant relationships between quality and structure of social capitals and it’s dimension with organizational job creation. If significance level is greater than 1%, then null hypothesis is accepted, and shows no significant relationship between the variables. In this section, research hypotheses were analyzed. Due to long process of hypothesis testing, refrain from listing all the tests and the results are presented as follows:
- Structural equations
In general, when working with Lisrel program, every one of the parameters calculated for the model are not determine the fitness or unfitness of model; but these indices must be interpreted together or with each other. If the chi-square test and further fitness tests showed that the model adequately fits, move toward the direction of fitted model factors and focus on them. Table 3 explain the most important indices and show that model have proper condition for explanation and fitness and indicative of the model fit the observed data. Model fit indices indicate the suitability of the measurement model. The present ratio of chi-square on degree of freedom less than 3, RMSEA index of less than 0.09, and the remaining indices are acceptable. In other words, the model and overall framework is meaningful and acceptable. All model fitness indices and indicators are also shown in the model.
|Table 2: Results of the Pearson correlation test research hypotheses|
|Research Hypothesis||Error level||Significance||Correlation||result|
|Goals in the rational organization system are influential on staff performance in the District 4 of Tehran education administration||1%||0.000||0.768||Confirmed|
|Systems in the rational organization system are influential on staff performance in the District 4 of Tehran education administration||1%||0.000||0.856||Confirmed|
|Processes in the rational organization system are influential on staff performance in the District 4 of Tehran education administration||1%||0.000||0.812||Confirmed|
|Strategic units in the rational organization system are influential on staff performance in the District 4 of Tehran education administration||1%||0.000||0.561||Confirmed|
|Competitive framework in the rational organization system are influential on staff performance in the District 4 of Tehran education administration||1%||0.000||0.921||Confirmed|
Figure 1: Structural equation of research model
|Table 3: Indicators of model’s fitness|
|Chi-square on degree of freedom||1.410||<3|
|GFI (General fitness index)||0.91||>0.9|
|RMSEA (Root mean square error of the estimate)||0.051||<0.09|
|CFI (Modified Fitness Index)||0.95||>0.9|
|NFI (Normalized fit index)||0.91||>0.9|
|NNFI (Non-Normalized Fitness Index)||0.94||>0.9|
The strengths of an organization’s goals are rational, reasonable structural design and organizational culture; where in the organization of education administration, these values have a large impact on performance, because they are considered as the foundation of an organization. A System in rational organization consist of organizational input and output; and processes in the system are intermediary between input and output interfaces and bridge them; Which collectively comprise the internal processes, internal processes suitable outlet is one of the indicators of employee performance, which in this study shows a positive correlation. Rational strategic areas in the organization, including identification of all beneficiary, durability factors and sustainability of the organization which the impact on average performance is shown, and the reason for this result is that strategic areas indirectly affect the performance of staff ‘s. Competitive advantage framework within a rational system include planning for organizational performance and its measurement, this measurement can certainly affect performance because it is directly reflects the shortcomings and weaknesses of performance. This is the reason of huge amount of influence that shown in Table 2.
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