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Vol 3 Issue 7

Volume  3  Issue  7



Strength Properties of Concrete Using Ternary System

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Abstract: Utilization of industrial waste materials and other supplementary materials in concrete compensates the lack of natural resources, solving the disposal problem of waste and to find alternative technique to safeguard the nature. Also it can be used to enhance the mechanical ad durability properties of the concrete. There are a number of supplementary materials such as silica fume (SF), Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS), Fly Ash (FA), Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and more used as partial replacement of cement. This paper carries out a thorough assessment about the addition of SF and GGBFS, which can be adequately utilized in concrete as cement substitution. For that water cement ratio was fixed as 0.55 and the replacement level is from 5% to 20%. Totally nine mix were prepared in the range of 0 to 25 % of SF and GGBFS in binary and ternary system. Different properties were studied to identify optimum level of replacement such as physical properties, chemical properties of materials and mechanical properties.


H .A.Kaoud , Khalf M.A and T.F.Ismail

Trial to Alleviate Ascites Syndrome in Broiler Chickens

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Abstract:The ascites syndrome (AS), also known as Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome (PHS), can be a major problem in the poultry industry, especially in the case of poor-managed flocks. The results are slowing down the body growth and high outbreaks of mortality. The environmental temperature was found to have a profound and highly significant effect on the etiology and morbidity of ascites incidence. Zeolite and ionized water can act as an anti-stress factor and has positive effects on broiler chickens performance (decreased mortality rate, feed intake, feed gain, feed conversion, and body weight). The addition of micronized zeolite or ionized water in drinking water has been successful in alleviating the effects of various intestinal diseases, with its action against ascites in broilers.


H.A.Kaoud, M.A.Khalf , T.F.Ismail and , Eman M. Ismaail

Pro and Retrospective Epidemiological Situation of Avian Influenza in Egypt

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Abstract:Pro and Retrospective Avian Influenza Situation In Egypt, through: Quantitative Observational Studies including; Officially available collected data: GOVS report, 2015, CAHO teams established that cover all Egyptian governorates by March 2015, Surveillance activities in Egypt include active and passive surveillance systems {where, The data collection addressed the poultry production systems according to the scope of production (grandparent, breeder, layer, broiler, nursery and household) } –Sampling and 3. Data collection. B. Phylogenic and Genetic Changes of H5 N1 and H9N2 in Egypt.

 Meta-analysis Evaluation: To assess heterogeneity in meta-analysis: Q statistic OR I2 index. Total numbers of 70130 samples (cloacal and tracheal swabs) were taken by a team of veterinarians from the different poultry sectors (poultry farms, backyard, LBM) all over the years 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014and 2015.

The extensive circulation of Highly Pathogenic (HP) H5N1 Avian Influenza in Egypt in poultry since 2006 resulted in the emergence of distinct clades with the recent identification of a further clade: Genetic characterization of Egyptian H9N2 viruses-Analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) phylogenetic tree identified that the viruses are fall within the A, B and C groups.

Results of meta-analysis carried out on the pro and retrospective epidemic studies in Egypt revealed that; the studies had wide variations according to Cochran’s Q statistic and Higgins and Thompson’s I 2. The proportion of total variability explained by heterogeneity showed a range of low to moderate precision.


H.A.Kaoud, Eman M. Ismaail ,M.A.Khalf andT.F.Ismail

Incidence of Silent AI Virus in Relation to Vaccination and Biosecurity Level in Some Broiler Farms of Egypt

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Abstract: The frequency distribution of positive avian influenza virus of studied farms was 46.14%, 12.12%, 18.75% in Qualubia, Fayoum and Beni-suef Governorates respectively. The mean value of HI titer was 8.6 % with positive PCR detection avian influenza virus in vaccinated farms, while in non vaccinated farms were 18.3%. Negative avian influenza virus PCR detection show HI titer 6.8 and mortality rate 7.1% in vaccinated farms while in non vaccinated HI titer 1.3 and mortality rate 5.8%.  In Fayoum and Beni-suef Governorates, the mean values of HI titer were 11.2, 4.7 and the mean values of mortality rate were 20%, 48.8 % with positive avian influenza virus detection, also the mean value of HI titer were 6.01, 5.8 and the mean values of mortality rate were 6.89%, 6.7 % with negative avian influenza detection.

The frequency distribution of biosecurity levels of farms  in Qualubia Governorate were 53.86%, 30.76%, 15.38% as good, fair and poor respectively. In Fayoum, frequency distribution of biosecurity levels were 30.30%, 57.58%, 12.12%  and in Beni-suef were 28.12%, 56.26%, 15.26% as good, fair and poor biosecurity level respectively.

The results revealed an association between virus ‘silent spread ‘and HI-titer level, where HI acted as a protective factor). Generally HI is positively related to the prevention of the virus, that the reduction of virus will be increased when the HI is present of high level but, even in the presence of high titer, unseen transmission between poultry farms can be occurred in the presence of biosecurity faults.  The association between biosecurity faults as risk factors in broiler house and their effects on HI titers in chickens vaccinated against AIV revealed that, there was an association between faults of biosecurity level and the low value in HI titer of chicken sera vaccinated against AIV vaccines. ____________________________________________________________________________

 H.A.Kaoud, T.F.Ismail and M.A.Khalf

The Effect of Some Physical and Chemical Agents on the Infectivity of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Egypt

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Abstract: In this study we have presented some aspects of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPIIV) in Egypt and the effect of some physical and chemical agents on its activity.The effect of temperature and UV light on the infectivity of isolated avian influenza virus H5N1 virus in litter could be inactivated by increasing temperature above 50ºC for at least 24 hr . UV light could not destroy the infectivity of the virus completely even after exposure for 48 hr. Disinfectants evaluated in this study including Fnvirolyte , Virkon®-S 1%, Aldekol 0.5%, and  bioscentry 0.5%. The results revealed that Envirolyte was very effective in reducing the titre of H5N1 virus after 10, 30 min and 12 hr of exposure at 25°C from (28 ) to (23 ) but it completely destroying the virus after 24 hr  of exposure at 25°C  with complete reduction in HA activity. The results also, revealed that Virkon- S®    and Aldekol were effective in reducing the titre of virus after 30 min of exposure at 25°C to (23 ) without any additional reduction afterwards for Virkon- S® . While, Aldekol succeeded in reducing the titre of H5N1 virus after 12 hr of exposure at 25°C to (22 ) but without any inactivation of HA.


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