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Vol 3 Issue 5

Volume  3  Issue  5

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Hassan A. Atef ; Howayda, M. El Shafei ; Mogda, K. Mansour ; Samira, A.M. Snosy and Khairy F. Abo-zaid

Effect of Microbiological Contamination and Pollution of Water on the Health Status of Fish

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Abstract: Fish has become an increasingly important source of protein and other elements necessary for the maintenance of human healthy. A total of 60 samples includes; (20 samples of each of Tilapia fish samples, water samples from water surrounding the collected fish and fish serum), were collected from ponds in El-Wadi -El-Gadid and El-Fayome governorates. Seven genera of molds were recovered from fish samples and four genera from water. Whereas, the Aspergillus spp. was recovered from fish and water samples at the rate of (90% and 40% ) at the top of all isolated molds. While, the most identified Aspergillus spp. from fish and water were A. flavus (40% and 10%) and A. niger (20% and 15%) and A. ochraceus (20% and 5%). While, two genera of yeasts were recovered from fish samples and also from water namely, Candida spp. (70 % and 5%) and Rhodotorula spp. (70 % and 10%). The incidence rate of aflatoxin in fish was (25%), while, the maximum levels of aflatoxins was (24 ppb) with the mean levels of (13±2.0 ppb). Whereas, no any levels of AFTs were detected in water samples collected from surrounding water. On the other hand, the bacteria isolated from fish and water samples were identified as Pseudomonas spp. (22.5% and 25%), E. coli (15% and 35%), Proteus spp. (14.2% and 0%), then Klebsiella spp. (11.7% and 25%) and Citrobacter spp. (10% and 15%), respectively , while Salmonella spp. recovered at relatively lower incidence (1.6 and 0%). All species of isolated bacteria were identified biochemically. However, the biochemical examination of water samples indicated that it exhibited extremely high concentrations of iron and ammonia and negatively affected the quality of pond water which caused fish poisoning. The significant increase in AST, ALT, AlP and LDH levels in polluted fish indicates hepatic damage may be due to mycotoxin accumulation which in turn releases these enzymes into the bloodstream. Therefore, all hygienic measures must be performed during catching in clean water, handling, and processing, manufacturing, storage, transportation, marketing of fish to guard the fitness and its hygienic status for consumers.

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Hanan .A. M. Youssef

Nursing Students’ Perception of Dying and their Contextualizing End of Life and Palliative Care in Nursing Curriculum at Taif University

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Abstract: Our world is rapidly becoming a global community, which creates a need to further understand the universal phenomena of death and professional caring for dying persons. Nursing students are increasingly exposed to dying patients with chronic diseases requiring palliative and End-of-Life (EOL) care in any clinical setting that trigger the importance of integrating that care and considering it an essential component of nursing education and training. Objectives: Assess nursing students’ perception about death and caring for dying patient and Context the palliative and EOL care in nursing curriculum. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive survey study was conducted on Nursing Department; a structured questionnaire was designed by the researcher based up on review of literature and was distributed to female nursing students from February to April 2016. Results: Most of nursing students perceived challenge in communicating and reacted by silent response toward dying patients and their families and their feeling and thoughts were negative, while half of them response that there is an inadequacy of educational program regard Quality of care at End-of-Life and palliative care approach should be a part of practice, the majority agree that it is important to study EOL in undergraduate nursing education and that explain their negative attitude toward caring dying patients. Conclusions: Palliative and EOL care should be a part of practice in basic nursing education. Future research should be done focusing on the students’ perception of caring for dying patients and their families through conducting a qualitative research by using reflective writing method

 

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