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Vol 3 Issue 4

Volume  3  Issue  4

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Thilina Amarasiri, Rumesh Liyanage, Indira Wickramasinghe

Development of Ready to Serve Iced Tea Drink from Tea Wastage Generated During the Black Tea Manufacturing Process in Sri Lanka

[Abstract] [Full-Text PDF] [html]

Abstract.: Study it was attempted to identify the possibility of developing a Ready to Serve (RTS) iced tea from the tea wastage generated in down country black tea manufacturing process in Sri Lanka. Around 8.8% GDP of Sri Lankan economy depends on tea manufacturing (Central Bank Report 2014,2015). According to the Central Bank annual reports shows that more than 6-8% of the tealeaves were lost as wastage during the process of manufacturing black tea in Sri Lanka.
Even though these waste tea were throw away without any valuable usage, this research clearly shown how this wastage can be turn in to a valuable and marketable product. Sri Lankan tea market can reduce the cost they lost as tea wastage by implementing this methodology in industrial scale.
The main objective of this study was to develop a RTS type Iced tea drink from the wastage generated in between the down country black tea manufacturing process. Moreover to identifying the proper stage to collect the refused tea and analyzing its behavior and accessibility to developed a food product. Identification of the better formulation, nutritional value of the developed product and analyze the stability of the product were other objectives of this study.
Essential Ingredients were identified through Literature review and market reference study in Sri Lankan market and two factorial studies were carried out to identification of the raw material proportions in an initial stage. Thereafter series of sensory evaluation were carried out in order to seven point hedonic scale with the participation of 35 panelists. Collected data were analyzed using Minitab 14 statistical software. Kruskal-Wallis test Method was applied within 5% significance level, and pair-wise test also done. Finally microbiology and proximate analysis were carried out complying with the AOAC standards. Stability of the product was determined through microbiologically and sensory evaluation for four weeks of time period.
There were series of sensory evaluation and finally four samples were selected among them numbered as 478, 642, 703, and 854. Within them sample No. 854 was significantly different from 703 and it has the highest average rank value. Also there were no significant differences between samples 478,642, and 703. And 854 were identified as the most preferable sample and carried out further analysis for each attribute for the sample with different formulations of citric acid. There were 12 newly prepared samples for each attribute and 742 was the most preferable sample for each attribute studied as appearance, strangeness, odour, taste, colour and overall acceptability among them.
The final product consists with 0.52%of Total solids, 0.78% of ash, 96.67% moisture and free of protein, fat and fibre and the average pH value was constant in 5.8. And there wasn’t any significance difference in pH value or sensory evaluation for four weeks of time period.
The developed product can be recommended for the Ceylon black tea industry to increase profit while protects the environment through redacting solid waste generation. And best raw material collection point was identified as at the colour-sorter. Aseptic packaging and triple laminated packaging methods recommended to use for the packaging process.

Refused tea, Iced tea, Black tea, wastage

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Dr. Aanchal, Ms. Natasha Goel

Technology Mediated Classroom Communication: Enhancing Inclusion in the Teaching Learning Process

[Abstract] [Full-Text PDF] [html]

Abstract: Technology has become integrated in the inclusive classroom in so many ways. Technological tools help the educators make better use of instructional material and also help students to improve their technological skills and better understanding within the context of the regular curriculum. When technology is used in communicating teaching-learning material in an inclusive classroom setting it will enrich the learning experience. Technology fosters the educational needs of differently abled students in regular classroom environment and helps them in mainstreaming. We can use different hardware and software to interact with the students and aid the teacher in delivering the instructional material efficiently.
Key Words: Communication, Components of Communication, Inclusive Classroom, Technology Mediated Classroom Communication, Ways of Technology Mediated Classroom Communication, Role of teacher

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Adeeko Tajudeen Olugbenga* and Buba A. Abdul Dahiru

Using Geo-Electrical Method of Estimation In Groundwater For Irrigation Potentials Of Kiyi Community, Kuje Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria

[Abstract] [Full-Text PDF] [html]

Abstract: Water is one of the most valuable natural resources essential to the actuality of the form of life; an adequate supply of safe water for maintaining ecosystem that supports all life and for achieving sustainable development. Agriculture in Nigeria is largely dependent on rainfall; however, given the erratic and extremely unreliable nature of rainfall, probably due to climate variability, irrigation development is seen as an obvious strategy to increase agricultural production. There is need to investigate its availability and suitability in order to ensure sustainability in the application and possible expansion of groundwater irrigation. This work involves using the electrical resistivity method to investigate the exploration of groundwater for irrigation and domestic use in Kiyi and Environs. A total of 12 VES using the Schlumberger Configuration was employed for the study. The obtained field data were analyzed and interpreted using Win-Resist software. The curves reveal that the area is characterized by 4-5 classes of geo-electric layers. Topsoil layer of thickness and resistivity values ranging from 0.7-3.4m and 17.4-81.8 ohms, Lateritic clay layer ranging from 0.4–5.0m and 12.3-356.6 ohms, weathered layer ranging from 0.8–30.1m and 35.4-546.6 ohms, fractured basement ranging from 2.6-33.4m and 96.6-1866.5 ohms, and the fresh basement layer ranging from infinity in thickness and 1434.7-79096.2 ohms and the longitudinal conductance of the overburden units range from 0.07123-0.32316 mhos. From the results, weathered/fractured basement aquifers, were delineated; these aquifer units may have significant groundwater potential to the depth of 35 meter to allow large reservoir within the aquifers.

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Dr. Faiza.A. N.

Women Perception Regarding Health Promotion during Pregnancy at Soba University Hospital in Khartoum State Sudan- 2013

[Abstract] [Full-Text PDF] [html]

Abstract: Pregnancy is a powerful and complex time in a woman’s life. Health promotion refers to promotive, preventive curative and rehabilitative health care of mother and children, which include concept of health promotion, healthy life style, self-care measure and traditional practices, as base line data. Objective, to study pregnant women perception regarding health promotion during pregnancy. Methods: Descriptive hospital based study was done in primary health center soba university hospital, Khartoum locality, 130 pregnant women were recruited randomly in the study. Data were obtained from participant by structured interview designed for the study regard health promotion. The data were entered, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 20 .Results: revealed that pregnant women perception regarding health promotion was 51.6%, general knowledge of pregnant women regard concept of health promotion was 33.3 %. 58.5% their knowledge regarding health life style, 40.6% their knowledge regarding self-care measure and 43%of the participant had false believes. There is no association between women education level, number of pregnancies and their perception regarding health promotion. Conclusion: Women’s perception regarding health promotion during pregnancy is not reasonable; however, relatively less than half have certain believes.

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Ilori, T.A., Adejumo, A.O., Akinyele , O A. and Oladimeji, S.T

Some Physical Properties of Corchorus Olitorius Seed as Function of Moisture Content

[Abstract] [Full-Text PDF] [html]

Abstract: Study was conducted on some physical properties of Corchorus olitorius seed as a function of moisture content. Bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose and coefficient of static friction on five structural surfaces (plywood, mild steel, stainless steel, galvanized steel and glass) were determined using standard methods. Moisture content was varied between 9.86%db and 17.69%db across the properties studied. It was observed that within the aforementioned moisture range, bulk density, true density and porosity decreased from 0.6965 g/cm3 to 0.6146 g/cm3, 1.2223 g/cm3 to 1.1364 g/cm3 and 38.42% to 35.26% respectively. Angle of repose of corchorius olitorius seed increased from 42.79° to 45.34° as the moisture content increases. The coefficient of static friction determined on five structural surfaces showed that coefficient of frictional decreased from 0.7843 to 0.2906 with increase in moisture content for all the contact surfaces. There exist a strong relationship between the properties and moisture content as expressed by the regression model.

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