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Vol 3 Issue 3

Volume  3  Issue  3

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Somendrika.M.A.D, Wickramasinghe.I,Wansapala.M.A.J and Peiris.S

Quantification of the Material Flow of Raw Cassava Tubers Processing for Export Market

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Abstract: Cassava (Manihot esculenta), is one of the most important calorie crops in the tropics, having multiple commercial and industrial uses. Sri Lanka has a surplus production of cassava and has high demand in both local and export markets. The total quantity of raw cassava export of Sri Lanka in year 2014 is 4,229 Metric tons. Therefor e improving the processing line of raw cassava for export market will be beneficial to increase the raw cassava export industry in Sri Lanka. This study was a case study, designed to carry out a material flow analysis of a processing plant of raw cassava roots export, to characterize and quantify the inputs and outputs of the process and to identify the hotspots in the processing line. The processing line includes raw cassava receiving, sorting, washing, fungicide treatment, packaging and sealing. The MFA revealed that the hotspots of raw cassava processing for export market were sorting, washing, fungicide treatment and packaging. From the raw cassava roots purchased 12.2±2.1% of the total raw cassava weight was wasted and 7.1±0.5% of total coco peat purchased were wasted during the processing. The amount of waste water generation was 415±20L per 1000kg of raw cassava roots weight.

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Attoe, E. E., Ojikpong, T. O. and 1Kekong, M.A

Evaluation of Growth and Yield Parameters of Two Ginger Varieties in Different Soils of Cross River State, Nigeria

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Abstract: A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effects of growth and yield parameters of two ginger varieties UGI (yellow ginger) and UG II (Black ginger) in different soils of Cross River State, Nigeria. The soils for the screen study were collected from fifteen (15) locations (Akamkpa, Mfamosing, Obubra, Ediba, Akpet I, Bawop, Betukwel, Bishere, Ogoja, Ugep, Greek Town, New Netim, Ikot Omin, Nde and Bendeghe) to represent the five major parent materials in the State namely; Basement complex, Shale, Sandstone, Coastal Plain Sand and Basalt and the two ginger varieties used were UG I (yellow ginger) and UG II (Black ginger). The screen house experiment was a split – plot design with three replicates, the ginger varieties occupied the main plot and the fifteen soil types the sub plot. The plant parameters accessed include plant height, number of leaves, number of shoot and yield. The result of the soils analysis showed that the soils were acidic with pH values ranging from 3.80 – 5.50, sandy and generally low in nutrients except the soils derived from Basement Complex. Rhizome yield in the studied soils showed that Akamkpa soils performed best followed by Mfamosing and Akpet I for UG I variety with the following fresh rhizome weights 72.3, 69.1 and 61.6grammes. While the Akamkpa soils also performed best followed by the Ugep and Bendeghe soils for the UG II variety with the following fresh rhizome weights 67.8, 64.3 and 48.8gms and the UG I variety had higher yield compared to UG II variety, with 17.9%.

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Abe, Kenji, Ed.D.

The Only Solution for the Human Civilization to Avoid the Future Apocalypse

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Abstract: The apocalypse has often been attributed to excessive human activities due to anthropocentrism. This paper discusses how and why our casual custom of eating meat plays a central role in anthropocentrism, and ending this is the key to the solution. It also demonstrates an example of how the solution can actually be put into action.

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Kashyap, Sreenath, Dwivedi, Vedvyas J.

Planar Radiators for High Frequency Applications

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Abstract: This paper presents the design and analysis of miniaturized nano size planar radiators resonating at Terahertz frequency using substrates which differ in dielectric permittivity. These structures are analyzed by varying the electromagnetic gap (mechanical distance) between the patches along with the rotation of the upper patch. Electrical performance is studied and found improved with help of antenna parameters namely S11, Gain and Bandwidth. Comparative study of the results is envisaged for these antenna structures using Arlon and Polymide as general purpose substrate materials. Researches speak that these radiating structures are useful for applications such as high frequency sensing and short range communication systems. Major features of these antennas include zero losses, negligibly small volume and weight, and extremely miniaturized surface making perfect electromagnetically conducting body. In addition, it contributes beautiful solution for global issues of environmental dangers due to material extraction from earth’s crust and heat loss, significant decrease in fuel consumption while launching the space vehicle and least power consumption for during its entire life in space

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A.A. Girei*., I.S. Usman** and E. G. Onuk*

Profitability Investigation of Rice Production in Fufore Local Government Area Of Adamawa State, Nigeria

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Abstract: The study analysed the profitability analysis of rice production in Fufore local government area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. Primary data which were obtained through the use of scheduled interview using structured questionnaire was used for the study. Frequency, percentages and budgetary technique were used to analyse the data. The results showed that 65% of the respondents had no formal education and financed their rice production through personal savings. About 82% of the respondents had more than 10 years’ experience in rice farming, 70% have household size of more than 5 people and 91% of the respondents had no extension visits. Equally worth mentioning from the result is that an average total cost of N270,864 was incurred per annum by the rice farmers while gross revenue of N740,000 was realized with gross margin of N494.940 and a profit of N469,136 and returned to Naira on investment of N0.37 were recorded. The study concluded that rice production in the study area is economically rewarding, profitable and sustainable with high propensity to achieving self-sufficiency in food security and poverty reduction. The study recommends adequate more extension visits to the respondents. The resource structure also revealed that majority of the farmers practiced small scale farming and had little access to financial support. In this regards, government and relevant stakeholders should actively participate in rice production in order to improve and boost the quantity and quality of rice availability for domestic consumption and export. Rice farming in the study area is dominated by male farmers. Female gender need to be motivated and encouraged to participate as a possible means of complementing their income that will ensure sustained livelihood. The farmers should be organized into cooperative and where it exist, they should be strengthen and become a formidable force to be reckoned with especially in decision and policy making on issues affecting their interest.

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Premathilaka Ruwanthi , Wickramasingha Indira, Sarananda Hewage

IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS IN THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; Costus specious (Koen.) Smith, Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt AND Wattakaka Volubilis

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Abstract: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of three important medicinal plants; Costus specious ( Thebu), Coccinia grandis ( Kowakka) and Wattakaka volubilis (Kiri Anguna). The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of leaf samples were evaluated by using in vitro assays; DPPH assay (IC50 value) and Folin-Ciacalteu method calculated as Gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Values of DPPH assay were compared to the standard antioxidant butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT). All samples showed effective scavenging activity and none of the samples exerted an obvious pro-oxidant activity. Highest antioxidant activity was shown in Coccinia grandis; 0.501 0.003 mg mL-1 and highest total phenolic content was shown in Wattakaka volubilis; 975.82 11.28 (mg/GAE/ 100 g) although there is no significant difference between Wattakaka volubilis and Coccinia grandis. The antioxidant activity was increased with the increasing amount of doses. The free radical scavenging activity may be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. Present study reported a positive relationship (r = 0.647) between phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Results obtained from the present study suggested that the leaves of Costus specious, Coccinia grandis and Wattakaka volubilis as potential sources of natural antioxidants

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