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Vol 3 Issue 2

Volume  3  Issue  2

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Emarati noshabadi seyed ali , jameiati mojtaba , karimi mohsen , hasani kharazm mohammad

Operation Unified Energy System (hub) to consider the reliability indices

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Abstract:.In this paper, then introduction of integrated energy systems, with regard to reliability indices as statically due to the development of societies, the growth of energy consumption and optimal and simultaneous of energy use have been studied. As well as, using with Genetic Algorithm (GA), the best state installed elements at different times in the form of statically model and the exact amount of input energies according to the value of electrical and thermal energies is determined. And using various efficiencies and prices of energy carrier in different hours in a year is considered. Finally, with extension period time of operation system in a prototype system is evaluated.

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EL-Saka Zeinab Ibrahim

Tomato Breeding for Heat Stress Conditions

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Abstract. High temperature caused a lot of damage in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) yield in summer season in Egypt. Tow field experiments were conducted at the experimental farm of Maryout Research Station, Desert Research Center, Alex. Governorate during the summer 2008 and 2009 growing seasons, to evaluate the performance of five different tomato cultivars namely: Nagcarlang LA-2661, Super Marmande, Peto-82, UCT5 and Super Strain-B and their hybrids to heat tolerance and for screening the cultivars or hybrids under 36.6 / 38.6 0C day and night 16.6 / 20.30C during summer season from May to September to produce a new hybrids capable adapted to high temperature with desire characteristics .Results indicated that the highest degree of tolerance was recorded in Nagcarlang LA-2661 value (9.75) followed by the cross UCT5 × Nagcarlang LA-2661 (8.75), while the lowest was recorded in UCT5 cv. Also this result was recorded in fruit set percentage (100%) for LA-2661 and followed by its hybrids UCT5 × Nagcarlang LA-2661 and Super Marmande × Nagcarlang LA-2661 values (87.6% and 76.5%). Significant differences were found among tomato genotypes, Nagcarlang LA-2661 exhibited more tolerance under heat stress conditions. Screening for yield and yield components were recorded, the highest value was 4837.7 g/plant in the cross UCT5 × Nagcarlang LA-2661followed by Super Marmande × Nagcarlang LA-2661 2559.3 g/plant. So, the lowest value was detected in F1 Peto-82 × Nagcarlang LA-2661. Heterosis expressed the hybrids vigor and exhibited the performance of crosses to heat stress. Data showed that the potence ratio (PR = 2.12% over dominance to yield and high amount of mid parent heterosis (MP = 31.63%) and showed hybrid vigor over better parent where heterosis was BP = 92.64%. Positive correlation among the degree of tolerance and fruit set percentage, fruit number and yield were r = 0.733, o.725 and 0.605 respectively. Selection for vegetative and fruits growth stages were useful tool to heat tolerance.

 

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Mahmoud M. Abu zeid

Improve Swelling Soil Properties by Mixing With Lime for Road Projects

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Abstract: Lime is used in heavy clay soil stabilization and increases the resistance and improved plasticity also Whenever the soil has a clay content more whenever the use of lime more useless in any installation process Whenever the soil contains a higher proportion of aluminum silicate and Whenever we get later on soil with good specifications treatment. As a result, it is not recommended using the lime in the soil that have no content of clay and are advised to be not less than the amount of material passing through the sieve 0.075mm 25% treatment, and in order to install soil stabilization soil must plasticity index IP> 30% and the percentage of clay is greater than 10% have. When adding lime to the soil and after an investigation sufficient moisture lime reacts with water and calcium ions are spread around Mnralat soil. Using small proportions of lime note the difficulty in mixing and get the heterogeneity as a result of soil particles gathered around Lime show granule blocks, so I do not prefer to use low levels of lime less than 2% for the risk heterogeneity, for a few plasticity clay Kaolinite possible (4% -6%) and for the high plasticity clay the ratio (5% -10%) and about 8% for montmorillonite. After adding lime to the sample used in the research show us some noticeable change in the properties of the sample. For example Liquid Limit was an end to the sample before adding lime and 70% after the addition of lime proportions determined by decreased liquidity limit to up to 60, so for the density, water content and the California bearing ratio.

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Attoe, E. E., Undie, U. L. and Kekong, M.A

Evaluation Of Alluvial And Upland Soils Of Obubra Local Government Area Of Cross River State, Nigeria For Okra ( Abelmoschus Esculentus) Production

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Abstract:This experiment was carried out at the green house of Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Obubra Campus, Cross River University of Technology (06051N, 8o201E) , with the aim of evaluating upland and alluvial soils for Okra production. Samples were obtained from the riverine areas of Obubra in Cross River State, Nigeria and research farm of Cross River State University of Technology. The soils of Obubra are formed from Shale, reddish Brown and gravelly and have been described as Lithic Dystropept (Dystric Cambisol) and the okra variety planted was the Clemson Spineless. Six random samples were bulked together for both chemical and physical analysis. The physical properties had values of 76.3% and 86.1% for sand for alluvial and upland soils, 12.7% and 6.5% silt for alluvial and upland soils and 11.0% and 7.4% clay for alluvial and upland soils respectively. The two soils had pH values of 4.7 and 5.6 for alluvial and upland soils respectively. The result of both physical and chemical properties of the investigated soil samples revealed that, the alluvial soil is more acidic than the upland soil. The organic matter of the alluvial soil was 2.69gkg-1 compared to that of upland soil that had 0.46gkg-1. Total nitrogen of both soils were 0.14gkg-1 for alluvial and a lower value of 0.03gkg-1 for upland soil. The alluvial soil with a higher level of organic matter as a result of accumulation of alluvial deposit, gave a significant yield of 2.42kg compared to the upland soil with a yield of 1.39kg at harvest. Finally, the difference observed in the yield of the okra variety was due to the fertility status of these soils.

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