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Vol 2 Issue 8

Volume  2  Issue  8

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Nadeem Madeeha and Kiran Shumaila

Motivation of Code-Switching among Female and Male

[Abstract] [Full-Text PDF] [html]

Abstract: This study tries to discuss Code-Switching’s motivation among female and male Speakers belonging to different kind of areas. Some of the conversations of the participants were recorded then the researcher transcribed the recorded data on the paper as well as the researcher analyzed extracts taken from transcribed text that were based only on ‘Markedness-Model’. This research revealed that the speakers do Code switching to exhibit confidence, social approval, status, integration as well as domination. Females or males switch codes in their own different ways. So, It has been realized that Codes used by them have specific functions or social-symbolism for every individual in many different kind of contexts.

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Muhayimana Victoire and Martin Kimemia

Women Entrepreneurs’ Support Projects and Their Contribution on the Welfare of the Beneficiaries in RWANDA
Case Study: Kigali City Province in NYARUGENGE District

[Abstract] [Full-Text PDF] [html]

Abstract: This paper explores women entrepreneurs’ support projects and their contribution on the welfare of the beneficiaries in Rwanda. It provides detailed information for people interested in improving their knowledge about women’s support projects performance, by providing updated information and analysis from the state of mushroom project in Kigali city Nyarugenge district. Through analyzing findings according to each objective, the researcher found out there is a significant contribution of women entrepreneur’s support projects on the welfare of the beneficiaries through capacity building. It showed that being entrepreneurs had an impact on the increase of their revenue, monthly savings, expenditures, malnutrition reduction and their working capital. The results found out that the women entrepreneur’s support projects contribute 55% to the welfare of its beneficiaries.

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Ehsan ahmadi , shariatmadar seyed Mohhamad , reza ahad 

Study of a State-of-the Art M-STATCOM

[Abstract] [Full-Text PDF] [html]

Abstract: This paper presents a novel static synchronouscompensator based on the state-of-the-art modular multilevelconverter called M-STATCOM. In order to support the DC busvoltage, maintain the stability of DC-link capacitor voltage,obtain an output voltage with low harmonic content andcompensate reactive power under unbalanced load operation, adirect current control (DCC) technique is used. For highaccuracy and good control system response, Level-Shift SinePulse Width Modulation (LS-PWM) technique is selected. TheM-STATCOM is simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC (version 4.5.1)environment and its static and dynamic responses are discussed.The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed modulation andcontrol strategy is validated by the simulation results.

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El Sayed, Hameda E. A.; Baziad, Salih A. M.; Basaba, Reem A. A. S.

Alleviation of Adverse Effects of Salinity Stress on Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, L.) Plants by Exogenous Application of Ascorbic Acid

[Abstract] [Full-Text PDF] [html]

Abstract: This study aimed to explain the role of ascorbic acid (AsA) for reducing the effect of salinity stress on special cultivar of tomato plant. The tomato seeds cv. Bonus F1 soaked in AsA at (0.75 mM) for 12 hours in the dark. Planted seeds in trays of cork contains 218 eye for 14 days, transplanted the seedlings plant to plastic containers containing a mixture of sand/peat-moss (1:2). Each pot contained 7 seedling plants were irrigated using different concentrations (1500, 3000, 4500, 6000 ppm) of NaCl. Total available carbohydrates (reducing sugars, non-reducing (sucrose) and polysaccharides), proteins and proline for both shoot and root of the tomato plant under salinity stress in the present of ascorbic acid (0.75 mM) more than in the absent of AsA compared with the control for growth stage (42 days). The data provide strong support to the hypothesis that exogenous of ascorbic acid reduces the harmful effects of salinity and increases resistance to salinity in tomato plant.

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Aboueladab Ehab, Shehata Faten , albahari Shawgi

Separation, Identification and characterization of proteins by Novel techniques and application

[Abstract] [Full-Text PDF] [html]

Abstract: Proteomic technologies will play a significant role in drug discovery, diagnostics and molecular medicine because it is the link between genes, proteins and disease. As researchers study defective proteins that cause particular diseases, their findings will help develop new drugs that either alters the shape of a defective protein or mimic a missing one. Advances in proteomics may help scientists eventually create medications that are “personalized” for different individuals to be more effective and have fewer side effects. Current research is looking at protein families linked to diseases, including cancer, diabetes and heart disease. Identifying unique patterns of protein expression, or biomarkers, associated with specific diseases are one of the most promising areas of clinical proteomics. Also, proteomics has been complemented by the analysis of modifications and techniques for the quantitative comparison of different proteins available proteomics techniques and their applications.

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Nadia Sadiq

English as a Social Symbol of Prestige & Its Impact on Urdu Language Speakers

[Abstract] [Full-Text PDF] [html]

Abstract :This paper will discuss the impact of English language on Urdu speakers or level at which change is happening in Urdu language usage and how English is taken as a social symbol of prestige in Pakistan. It will also highlight the factors which cause the excessive use of English vocabulary in their social language. This research will be based on qualitative data from Pakistani social networking sites (SNS). This paper aims to highlight the code-switching and code-mixing and a brief overview of the use of English as a non-native language in Pakistan. All the present data will discuss how abbreviated forms of English words are being used and understood among Pakistani people. Research will be conducted through collecting different chat sessions and status updated by Pakistani people on social networks.

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