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Vol 1 Issue 10

Volume  1  Issue  10

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 Faweya E.B

Determination of Radioactivity Levels and Hazard of Water and Sediment Samples in Various Gold Mining Pits at Itagunmodi Ilesha Nigeria

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Abstract: The natural radioactivity levels in sediment and water samples of gold pits in Itagunmodi Ilesha have been determined. The activity concentrations obtained for series 226Ra, 232Th and non-series 40K are measured in the unit of Bq kg-1 . The overall average concentrations of radionuclides were 28.9, 53.3 and 532.6 Bq kg-1 respectively in sediment samples; while the overall average of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in water samples were 6.0, 8.9, and 103.6 Bq l-1 respectively. The results obtained were compared with others radioactivity measurement in different countries sediments and water. The estimated radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose (Dr), external hazard index, the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) in both sediments and water samples fall within acceptable limit. Assessment of anthropogenic pollution in sediments gives concentrations that are within acceptable safety limit. A study of elemental concentration ratios of Th/U, K/U and K/Th revealed that depletion and enrichment process of these radionuclides in sediment and water samples in the area are almost the same. Keywords: Sediment; water; radioactivity; gold; elemental ratio; Itagunmodi Ilesha.

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Jessinta Sandanasamy; Nour, Azhari Hamid; Tajuddin, Saiful Nizam and Nour, Abdurahman Hamid

Chemical Characterization and Biological Study of Azadirachta indica Extracts

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Abstract: The utilization of the plant parts (bark, leaves and roots) of Azadirachta indica from Malaysia for research purpose were limited and most of the previous studies focused only on the leaves. Thus, this study focused on the volatile compounds and the cytotoxic study of crude and fractions obtained from bark, leaves and roots of A. indica. The analysis of the volatiles of the crude and fractions was performed via Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The volatiles present vary according to the plant parts and extraction solvents. The bark aqueous fraction yielded highest amount of volatiles (19 compounds) that corresponds towards various reported activities. The n-hexadecanoic acid was the most frequently occurring compound detected in all extracts, bark (40.14 and 20.1%), leaf (65.18 and 44.79%) and root (20.55 and 9.14%) for crudes and fractions, respectively. Meanwhile, the cytotoxic bioassay against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) resulted that; the fractions were more toxic compared to the crude extracts. Among all the extracts, leaf ethyl acetate fraction provides a lethal concentration value (1.35 ± 0.40 ppm) of the lowest, followed by bark ethyl acetate (1.38 ± 0.33) and leaf chloroform fraction (2.14 ± 0.35 ppm) and thus indicating the highest cytotoxic effect. The bioassay proved that fractions provide a better extraction technique for the extraction of toxic phytochemicals compared to the crude extracts.

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Mohamed Ahmed Hassanien , Saad-El-Din Abd-El-Fattah Abou-El-Noeman , Ehab Aboueladab

Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant and Leptin Status in Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

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Abstract: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by morphological features indistinguishable from alcoholic hepatitis in individuals who do not consume excess alcohol. NASH can progress to cirrhosis, and liver failure is now the second leading cause of death in these patients. Although the prevalence of NASH appears to be increasing, the etiopathogenesis remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms involved in developing NASH through biochemical and laboratory parameters in Egyptian patients. This study was conducted on twenty five patients with NASH and twenty normal subjects of matched age and sex as control. All the patients were evaluated for several biochemical parameters through liver function tests, lipid profile, fasting and postprandial blood glucose, malondialdhyde, glutathione peroxidase activity, advanced glycated end products, and serum leptin. Data obtained from these tests were statistically evaluated. Obesity, hyperlipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus were prevalent among patients with NASH. There was significant increase in malondialdhyde and glutathione peroxidase activity in NASH patients. In addition, there were significant increases in leptin and basic fibroblast growth factor in NASH patients compared to control. Despite examining in different demography, we reestablished obesity, non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia as the important risk factors for NASH. We also found that enhanced oxidative stress was responsible for the second hits to liver in our patients, leading to NASH apart from simple steatosis. We reaffirmed the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of NASH.

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Sabbour, M.M and Nayera Y. solieman

Determinations of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria brongniartii on three sugar beet pests

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Abstract: The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria brongniartii, were evaluated against three sugar pests, Phyllotreta cruciferae Pegomyia hyoscami Cassida vittata, under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, LC50 recorded 100X104 . 120 X104 and 131X104 spores/ml after P. cruciferae, P. hyoscami and C. vittata treated with different concentrations of B. brongniartii. The entomopathogenic fungus B. brongniartii against sugar beet insect pests, showed that the number of eggs laid /female were significantly decreased to 22±1.7, 33±8.9, and 35±2.6 individuals for P. cruciferae, P. hyoscami , and respectively as compared to 266±8.7 individuals in the control. The egg hatching for the corresponding pests were, 4,7,9 as compared to 99 % in the control that the weight of sugar beet were significantly increased to 2345± 54.66, 2337±66.11 and in the plots treated with the fungi for P. cruciferae, P. hyoscami , and C. vittata respectively as compared to1788±55.43 ton/feddaan in the control during season 2012. The corresponding data obtained during 2013 were 2567±67.91, 2443±54.98, and 2436±22.87 as compared to 1227±45.09 ton/feddan in the control the percentage of the sugar beet pests significantly decreased during both two successive season2012 and 2013 after fungi treatments.

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Mr. Kapil S. Raviya,Dr. Ashish M. Kothari,Dr. Dwivedi Ved Vyas

Depth and Disparity Extraction Structure for Multi View Images-Video Frame- A Review

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Abstract: the stereo matching algorithms for binocular vision are very popular and widely used. Still, the algorithms may have lower matching quality or higher time complexity. Matching can be viewed as a process of finding the degree of correlation between two groups of data. This area belongs to the one of the most explored topics in stereo vision. The depth value can be found by the disparity estimation by taking advantage of the similarity in these two views, which can be captured at the same time in a depth generation algorithm. It is not easy to find the accurate depth value if there is high similarity in color spaces around the area. Stereo matching is a fundamental problem in computer vision that estimates depth of a 3D scene with a pair of images. This paper presents the fundamental steps for finding depth extraction and related terms.

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Sabbour Magda, Foda. M.S. and Maysa E. Moharam

Evaluations of Bacillus species against red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) under laboratory and store conditions

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Abstract: The effect of five bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis were tested against the two stored products the Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum. Results obtained show that, the LC50s of the different bacterial strain recorded, 79, 67, 66, 44 and 74 Ug/ml afte T. confusum treated with different concentrations of B.T J, B.t 0900, Bt NRRL 2172, BT IP thurizide and Bt HD112., respectively. The corresponding LC50s of T. castaneum are, 77, 65, 65, 39 and 44 Ug/ml ., respectively . Under store conditions, after bacterial treatments, the number of eggs laid / female of T. confusum were significantly decreased to 11.0±3.7 and17.3±2.5 after 120 days b of BT IP thurizide and Bt HD112., respectively as compared to 99.8±1.9 in the control. Reults showed also, that the T. castaneum significantly decreased under store conditions to 11.8±1.7 as compared to 98.8±1.9 in the control after 120 days.

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 Ige Akindele, M,  Fasakin, M.O

Constraints to Education Development and Way Forward in Nigeria

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Abstract: The case of education in Nigeria can be likened to a seed that falls among thorns on the soil, such that when it germinates and continues to grow, the growth is abnormal to the extent that it cannot bear good fruits. Since the advent of western education in Nigeria in 1842, all has not been well with it. It has been facing many crises which have not been allowing it to develop. In this paper, the constraints to education development in Nigeria such as: inadequate access to schools, inadequate funding, inadequate and decay infrastructural facilities, inadequate, low quality and non commitment of teachers, poor academic performance of pupils and students, inappropriate curriculum, corruption, among others were examined. To reposition and move the education forward, government, educational institutions’ administrators, students, parents, and other stakeholders in education have roles to play. In particular, government needs to allocate more fund to education sector, recruit qualified teachers to curb the present shortage in schools, improve teachers’ welfare, train and retrain teachers so that they can cope with new challenges, provide adequate infrastructural facilities in schools, curb corruption as well as examination malpractices.

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Sheth Dhrumil, Saurin Shah

Ultrasound Image Segmentation Techniques for Renal Calculi – A Review

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Abstract: The structural defects related to size and position of kidneys’ such as presence of cysts and stones can be estimated with the help of Kidney ultrasound visual presentation. However, Speckle sound in ultrasound icon acts as a barrier in performing segmentation methods for kidney metaphors. Here we detect the stones present in kidney, fragment the kidney regions and evaluate the part of the renal which is occupied by kidney stones. Recognition of stone is fundamentally an essential preliminary phase to solve the segmentation problem profitably. Thus, the client ultimately comes to identify that it is hard to detect the boundary of the kidney in the ultrasound image; even though it is done by expert sonographers. Individual errors may occur during the interpretation of ultrasound image by an inexperienced sonographer, especially while taking dimensions. Thus, for the purpose of sinking the dependability to the sonographers’ expertise, some icon processing can be done which can automatically detect the centroid of human kidney and its calculi. On top, on boundary edges may be omitted or not properly visible and usually incomplete at various spaces. With the assist of exceeding authenticity, the four premeditated methods have been urbanized for renal calculi segmentation.

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